Wisdom of Practice


Representative Publications

Shulman, L. S., & Keislar, E. R., (Eds.). (1966). Learning by discovery: A critical appraisal. Chicago: R& McNally & Company.

Shulman, L. S. (1970). “Psychology & mathematics education.” In E. Begle, (Ed.), Mathematics education, the sixty-ninth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Shulman, L. S. (1970). “Reconstruction of educational research.” Review of Educational Research, June 1970.

Shulman, L. S., & Tamir, P. (1973). “Research on teaching in the natural sciences.” In R.M.W. Travers, (Ed.), Second handbook of research on teaching. Rand McNally.

Shulman, L. S. (1974). “The psychology of school subjects: A premature obituary?” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 2.4: 319-339.

Shulman, L. S., & Elstein, A. S. (1975). “Studies of problem solving, judgment and decision-making: Implications for educational research.” In F. Kerlinger (Ed.), Review of research in education III.

Elstein, A. S., Shulman, L. S., & Sprafka, S. (1978). Medical problem solving: The analysis of clinical reasoning. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Shulman, L. S. (1981). “Disciplines of inquiry in education: An overview.” Educational Researcher 10.6: 5-12, 23.

Shulman, L. S. (1983). Educational psychology returns to school. G. Stanley Hall Lecture Series, American Psychological Association.

Shulman, L. S., & Sykes, G., (Eds.). (1983). Handbook of teaching and policy. New York: Longman.

Shulman, L. S. (1983). “Autonomy and obligation: The remote control of teaching.” In L. S. Shulman & G. Sykes (Eds.), Handbook of teaching and policy. New York: Longman.

Shulman, L. S. (1984). “The practical and the eclectic.” Curriculum Inquiry July 1984.

Shulman, L. S., & Carey, N. B. (1984). “Psychology and the limitations of individual rationality.” Review of Educational Research 54.4: 501-524.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). “Paradigms and research programs in the study of teaching.” In M.C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching. New York: MacMillan.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). “Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching.” Educational Researcher Feb. 1986: 4-14. (AERA Presidential Address).

Shulman, L. S., & Sykes, G. (1986). A National Board for teaching? In search of a bold standard. Paper prepared for the Task Force on Teaching as a Profession, Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy.

Shulman, L. S. (1987). “The wisdom of practice: Managing complexity in medicine and teaching.” In D.C. Berliner & B.V. Rosenshire (Eds.), Talks to teachers: A festschrift for N.L. Gage. New York: Random House.

Shulman, L. S. (1987). “Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform.” Harvard Educational Review Feb. 1987: 1-22.

Shulman, L. S. (1987). “Assessment for teaching: An initiative for the profession.” Phi Delta Kappan Sep. 1987: 39-44.

Shulman, L. S. (1987). “Sounding an alarm: A reply to Sockett.” Harvard Educational Review Nov. 1987: 473-482.

Wilson, S. M., Shulman, L. S., & Richert, A. E. (1987). “150 different ways of knowing: Representations of knowledge in teaching.” In J. Calderhead (Ed.), Exploring teachers’ thinking. Sussex: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Shulman, L. S. (1988). “Teaching alone, learning together: Needed agenda for the new reforms.” In T.J. Sergiovanni & J.H. Moore (Eds.), Schooling for tomorrow: Directing reforms to issues that count. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Shulman, L. S., Haertel, E., & Bird, T. (1988). “Toward alternative assessments of teaching.” A report of work in progress to The Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Shulman, L. S. (1988). “The paradox of teacher assessment.” New directions for teacher assessment. Proceedings of the 1988 ETS International Conference. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.

Shulman, L. S. (1988). “A union of insufficiencies: Strategies for teacher assessment in a period of educational reform.” Educational Leadership Nov. 1988: 36-41.

Shulman, L. S. (1989). Aristotle had it right: On knowledge and pedagogy. The Holmes Group, Occasional Papers series based on keynote at Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, January 27, 1989.

Grossman, P.L., Wilson, S. M., & Shulman, L. S. (1989). “Teachers of substance: Subject matter knowledge for teaching.” Knowledge base for the beginning teacher. Ed. M.C. Reynolds. New York: Pergamon Press.

Shulman, L. S. (1989). “Toward a pedagogy of substance.” AAHE Bulletin (American Association of Higher Education) June 1989.

Shulman, L. S. (1990). “Reconnecting foundations to the substance of teacher education.” Teachers College Record 91.3: 300-310.

Wineberg, S. S., & Shulman, L. S. (1990). “The self-fulfilling prophecy: Its genesis & development in American education.” Robert K. Merton: Consensus and controversy. Eds. J. Clark, C. Modgil, & S. Modgil. Philadelphia: The Falmer Press.

Shulman, L. S. (1991). “Joseph Jackson Schwab (1909-1988).” Remembering the University of Chicago. Ed. E. Shils. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Shulman, L. S. (1991). “Ways of seeing, ways of knowing: Ways of teaching, ways of learning about teaching.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 23.5: 393-395.

Shulman, L. S. (1991). Teaching excellence in the university. Stanford University Academic Council. Stanford, California, May 1991.

Shulman, L. S. (1991). An odyssey of teacher assessment: Final report of the Teacher Assessment Project: An overview of the work. Final report to The Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Shulman, L. S. (1992). “Toward a pedagogy of cases.” In J. H. Shulman (Ed.), Case methods in teacher education. New York: Teachers College Press.

Shulman, L. S. (1992). “Merging content knowledge and pedagogy: An interview with Lee Shulman.” Journal of Staff Development 13.1: 14-17. Interviewer Denis Sparks.

Shulman, L. S. (1992). “On research on teaching: A conversation with Lee Shulman.” Educational Leadership 49.7: 14-19. Interviewer Ron Brandt.

Shulman, L. S. (1992). “Research on teaching: A historical & personal perspective.” In F. Oser, A. Dick, & J. Patry (Eds.), Effective and responsible teaching: The new synthesis. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass: 14-29.

Shulman, L. S. (1993). Displaying teaching to a community of peers. The American Association for Higher Education. National Conference on Faculty Roles and Rewards. San Antonio, TX. Jan. 30 1993.

Shulman, L. S. (1993). “Calm seas, auspicious gales” In R. E. Floden & M. Buchmann (Eds.), Detachment and concern: Conversations in the philosophy of teaching & teacher education. New York: Teachers College Press.

Shulman, L. S. (1993). “Teaching as community property: Putting an end to pedagogical solitude.” Change Nov. 1993: 6-7.

Shulman, L. S. (1993). Valuing teacher knowledge. The Incorporated Association of Registered Teachers, Victoria’s Invitational Morning Seminar. Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 1993.

Grossman, P. L., & Shulman, L. S. (1994). “Knowing, believing, and the teaching of English.” In T. Shanahan (Ed.), Teachers thinking, teachers knowing: Reflections on literacy and language education. Illinois: NCRE/NCTE: 3-22.

Shulman, L. S. (1995). Toward greater excellence in teaching at Stanford. Final Report of the C-AAA Sub-Committee on the Evaluation and Improvement of Teaching, Stanford University, Apr. 1995.

Shulman, L. S. (1995). “The pedagogical colloquium: Three models.” AAHE Bulletin May 1995.

Shulman, L. S., & Quinlan, K. M. (1996). “The comparative psychology of school subjects.” In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology. New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.

Shulman, L. S. (1996). “‘Just in case . . .’: Reflections on learning from experience.” The case for education: Contemporary approaches for using case methods. Ed. J.A. Colbert, P. Desberg & K. Trimble. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Shulman, L. S. (1997). “Professional development: Learning from experience.” Common schools, uncommon futures: A working consensus for school renewal. Ed. Barry Kogan. New York: Teachers College Press.

Shulman, L. S. (1997). “Communities of learners & communities of teachers.” Monographs from the Mandel Institute #3. Jerusalem: The Mandel Institute.

Shulman, L. S. (1997). “Disciplines of inquiry in education: A new overview.” Complementary methods for research in education. Ed. Richard M. Jaeger. Second Edition. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

Shulman, L. S. (1997). “Professing the liberal arts.” Education and democracy: Re-imagining liberal learning in America. Ed. Robert Orrill. New York: College Board Publications.

Shulman, L. S. (1998). “Teaching and teacher education among the professions.” 38th Charles W. Hunt Memorial Lecture. American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education 50th Annual Meeting. New Orleans, Louisiana. Feb. 25 1998.

Phillips, D.C., & Shulman, L. S., (Eds.). (1998). “John Dewey: The Chicago years.” The Elementary School Journal May 1998.

Shulman, L. S. (1998). “Theory, practice, & the education of professionals.” The Elementary School Journal 98.5: 511-526.

Shulman, L. S. (1998). “Course anatomy: The dissection & analysis of knowledge through teaching.” The course portfolio: How faculty can improve their teaching to advance practice and improve student learning. Ed. Pat Hutchings. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education.

Shulman, L. S. (1998). “Teacher portfolios: A theoretical activity.” With portfolio in hand, Nona M. Lyons (Ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.

Shulman, L. S. (1999). Foreword to G. Hillocks, Jr., Ways of thinking, ways of teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.

Shulman, L. S. (1999). Foreword to E. Condliffe Lagemann, Private power for the public good: A history of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Paperback Edition. New York: The College Board Publications.

Shulman, L. S. (1999). Foreword to L. Ma, Knowing and teaching elementary mathematics: Teachers’ understanding of fundamental mathematics in China and the United States. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Condliffe Lagemann, E., & Shulman, L. S., (Eds.). (1999). Issues in education research: Problems and possibilities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Shulman, L. S. (1999). “Professing educational scholarship.” In E. C. Lagemann & L. S. Shulman (Eds.), Issues in education research: Problems and possibilities Issues in education research: Problems and possibilities, pp. 159-165. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Shulman, L. S. (1999). Foreword to L. Darling-Hammond & G. Sykes (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Shulman, L. S. (1999). “Taking learning seriously.” Change July/August 1999: 10-17.

Hutchings, P., & Shulman, L. S. (1999). “The scholarship of teaching: New elaborations, new developments.” Change September/October 1999: 10-15.

Condliffe Lagemann, E., & Shulman, L. S. (1999). Next steps: Reflections on education research & ways the National Academy of Education might help to further strengthen it. A report of the Commission on the Improvement of Education Research (CIER), the National Academy of Education.

Shulman, L. S. (2000). Fostering a scholarship of teaching and learning. 10th Annual Louise McBee Lecture, The University of Georgia Institute of Higher Education. October 19, 1998. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia.

Shulman, L. S. (2000). “From Minsk to Pinsk: Why a scholarship of teaching & learning?” The Journal of Scholarship of Teaching & Learning 1.1. Faculty Colloquium on Excellence in Teaching, Indiana University.

Shulman, L. S. (2000). “Teacher development: Roles of domain expertise and pedagogical knowledge.” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 21(1): 129-135.

Shulman, L. S. (2000). “Inventing the future.” In P. Hutchings (Ed.), Opening lines: Approaches to the scholarship of teaching and learning. Menlo Park, CA: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Shulman, L. S. (2001). “Appreciating good teaching: A conversation with Lee Shulman.” Educational Leadership 58.5: 6-11. Interviewer Carol Tell.

Shulman, L. S. (2001). “A conversation with Lee Shulman: Lee Shulman champions the cause of understanding teachers & their learning.” New Educator 7.1: 10-13. Interviewer Victor Inzunza. Office of the Dean, College of Education, Michigan State University.

Grossman, P., & Wineburg, S. (2001). “Lee Shulman.” In J. A. Palmer (Ed.), Fifty modern thinkers on education: From Piaget to the present. New York: Routledge.

Shulman, L. S. (2002). Untitled contribution in “Learning after September 11, 2001: A collaborative reflection.” January 4, 2002. Learning Development Institute.

Shulman, L. S. (2002). “Truth and consequences? Inquiry and policy in research on teacher education.” Journal of Teacher Education 53.3: 248-253.

Hammerness, K., Darling-Hammond, L., & Shulman, L .S. (2002). “Toward expert thinking: How curriculum case writing prompts the development of theory-based professional knowledge in student teachers.” Teaching Education 13.2: 220-243.

Shulman, L. S. (2002). “Making differences: A table of learning.” Change 34.6: 36-44.

Shulman, L. S. (2003). “Scholarship of teaching in higher education.” In E. De Corte (Ed.), Excellence in higher education, Wenner-Gren International Series, 82. London: Portland Press.

Shulman, L. S. (2004). “Forgive and remember: The challenges & opportunities of learning from experience.” In L. Solomon & T. Schiff, (Eds.), Talented Teachers: The essential force for improving student achievement. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, Inc.

Shulman, L., & Sherin, M. G. (2004). “Fostering communities of teachers as learners: disciplinary perspectives.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 36.2: 135-140.

Shulman, L., & Shulman, J. (2004). “How and what teachers learn: A shifting perspective.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 36.2: 257-271.

Shulman, L. S. (2004). Teaching as community property: Essays on higher education. P. Hutchings (Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Shulman, L. S. (2004). The wisdom of practice: Essays on teaching, learning, and learning to teach. S. Wilson (Ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Shulman, L. S. (2004). Foreword to P. B. Uhrmacher & J. Matthews (Eds.), Intricate palette: Working the ideas of Elliot Eisner. Columbus, OH: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Shulman, L. S. (2005). Special guest editorial. “If not now, when? The timeliness of scholarship of the education of engineers.” Journal of Engineering Education 94.1: 11-12.

Shulman, L. S. (2005). “’Seek simplicity…and distrust it’.” Education Week (June 8, 2005): Commentary.

Shulman, L. S. (2005). “Pedagogies of uncertainty.” Liberal Education 91:2: 18-25.

Shulman, L. S. (2005). “To dignify the profession of the teacher: The Carnegie Foundation celebrates 100 years.” Change 37.5: 22-29.

Shulman, L. S. (2005). “Signature pedagogies in the professions.” Daedalus 134.3: 52-59.

Gardner, H., & Shulman, L. S. (2005). “The professions in America today: Crucial but fragile.” Daedalus 134.3: 13-18.

Shulman, L. S. (2005). Foreword to M. T. Huber & P. Hutchings, The advancement of learning: Building the teaching commons. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Shulman, L. S. (2005). “Visions of educational leadership: Sustaining the legacy of Seymour Fox.” In M. Nisan & O. Schremer (Eds.), Educational deliberations: Festschrift in honor of Seymour M. Fox (pp. 451-472). Jerusalem: Keter Publishers.

Shulman, L. S. (2005). “Teacher education does not exist.” Stanford Educator (Fall 2005): 7.

Shulman, L. S. (2005). “Classifications’ complexities.” The Chronicle for Higher Education (November 11, 2005): B20.

Shulman, L. S. (2006). Foreword to T. Hatch, Into the classroom: Developing the scholarship of teaching and learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Falk, B. (2006). “A conversation with Lee Shulman—Signature pedagogies for teacher education: Defining our practices and rethinking our preparation.” The New Educator 2:73-82.

Shulman, L. S. (2006). Foreword to K. Hammerness, Seeing through teachers’ eyes: Professional ideals and classroom practices. New York: Teachers College Press.

Shulman, L. S. (2006). “From hermeneutic to homiletic: The professional formation of clergy.” Change (March/April 2006): 28-31.

Shulman, L. S., et al. (2006). “Reclaiming education’s doctorates: A critique and a proposal.” Educational Researcher 35.3: 25-32.

Shulman, L. S. (2006). “Forum: The Spellings report, ‘warts and all’: More than competition.” In The Chronicle of Higher Education (September 1 2006): B9-10.

Shulman, L. S. (2007). “Counting and recounting: Assessment and the quest for accountability.” Change 39.1: 20-25.

Shulman, L. S. (2007). “Good teaching.” Box content in Loeb, S., Rouse, C., & Shorris, A., “Introducing the Issue,” in The Future of Children 17.1: 6-7.

Shulman, L. S. (2007). “The impossible fullness of the empty classroom: A letter of appreciation.” In Hansen, D., Driscoll, M. E., & Arcilla, R. V. (Eds.), A life in classrooms: Philip W. Jackson & the practice of education (pp. 7-15). New York: Teachers College Press.

Shulman, L. S. (2007). “Seek simplicity and distrust it.” In Deily, M. P. and Bromberg, V. H. (Eds.), Education Week: The last word (pp. 185-191). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

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